Supervising trainees is a part of the job for many psychologists, who too often carry out these supervisory duties with only a cursory awareness of the ethical and legal pitfalls involved. My goal is to draw on ethical guidelines, applicable statutory and regulatory law, and illustrative legal cases and licensing disciplinary decisions to provide specific suggestions to psychologists to ensure appropriate supervision.
1. We will review the law governing supervision, especially APA Code of Ethics standards and principles, Maine statutory and regulatory law, and common law theories of the standard of care, direct and vicarious liability, confidentiality, and the duty to protect.
2. We will explore the necessary qualifications of supervisors, orienting ourselves to both the need for professional knowledge and expertise and interpersonal competencies.
3. We will explore the duties and responsibilities of the supervisor, including identification of trainee competencies and training outcomes as well as feedback and evaluations.
4. We will explore the problems of dual relationships.
5. Finally, we will discuss and recommend ways to enhance the supervisory experience.
Attorney Dennis Carrillo is a member of Cloutier Carrillo, in Augusta. He has practiced law for twenty years and focuses on advising psychologists on practice issues and defending them in licensure complaints and grievances. Dennis also defends Medicare and Medicaid providers in recoupment and fraud and abuse proceedings.
I. Governing Supervision
II. Competencies for Effective Supervision
a. Professional Knowledge and Expertise
b. Interpersonal Competencies
III. Structuring the Supervisory Process
c. Identifying Trainee's Competencies
d. Identifying Appropriate Training Outcomes
e. Feedback and Evaluation
IV. Enhancing the Supervisory Experience